Artificial intelligence has come a long way from the time when it made a first sensational victory in 1997 when IBM’s computer DeepBlue won the legendary Kasparov in a game in which he was an undisputed ruler.
Today, 20 years later, the development of AI got galloping speed, approaching the moment when the boundaries between humans and machines will be severely blurred. What once was a science fiction, now is a reality. Thanks to advances in machine learning, nowadays computers can translate oral and written conversations, recognize photos and faces, or simply be your personal assistant.
In the background of the increasing presence of artificial intelligence in our everyday lives, raising a number of issues, primarily social, ethical and security.
Breakthrough BCI Technologies And Neural Networks – From Learning Through Problem-Solving To Medical Treatments
An important role in the progress of artificial intelligence took the development of brain-computer interface technology (BCI). It is based on the collaboration between the brain and the device, allowing the stroke signals to send instructions for a particular outside activity. In practical terms, with the help of BCI technology, we can control the machine with our thoughts. One such a typical example is a humanoid Baxter, who’s MIT’s laboratory enable it to receive advice in a real-time directly from the human brain waves.
However, it seems that now the greatest benefits of BCI development and applications has medicine. Treatment of severe conditions such as spinal cord injury and cerebral paralysis is increasingly performed with stimulation of brain activity. There has been a successful pioneering procedure in treating quadriplegia, which enables the patient to move his hand with his thoughts.
Some of the most popular systems of artificial intelligence, such as speech recognition on the smartphone or Google’s automatic translator resulting neural network techniques. In fact, this approach to AI is now known as deep learning, presenting a collection of machine learning algorithms for training layered structure. Raising the level of complex self-learning is a crucial milestone in the further evolution of AI.
When The Boundaries Between Human And Artificial intelligence Crossed?
Intelligent information systems are greatly improved and facilitated our lives. We can say that we are still in the comfort zone when it comes to defining clear boundaries between us and them. However, beyond the horizon the questions are louder: How will the AI affect human behavior? How do we control the complex AI systems? Are we really safe and how privacy is compromised?
The most famous living physicist Stephen Hawking is one of the most vocal when it comes to warning of the possible consequences of a major development of artificial intelligence. He believes that our slow biological evolution could hardly cope with such advanced systems. A similar attitude has the Bill Gates also.
Automation industry was once the salvation for the working class. Robots that are facilitated physical work today pretends to fully displace many professional branches. The Oxford conducted a study in which it was determined that by 2030 only in the public sector UK job will lose 850,000 people. Even the worst prediction for America. This problem will face 24 million employees, according to the latest Forrester report.
At the end of all the questions, it may be crucial this one: If we have robots that can think and work at their own discretion, whether such an entity should be possible to give rights? Questions of law are already controversial by itself from the aspect of individual human rights, demanding precise factors for their determination. If we don’t establish a clear framework for defining such artificial systems, this issue will be one of the biggest stumbling blocks.
When Do We Move From A Weak Into A Strong Artificial Intelligence And What Will It Look Like?
Most AI researchers have varying stance when it comes to the ultimate domain of artificial intelligence systems, both in terms of their features, and the temporal determinants. Weak artificial intelligence has been already all around us, but its ultimate goal is to achieve a strong intelligence. However, strong AI is only seen in popular fiction so far.
Shimon Whiteson, an associate professor at the Informatics Institute in Amsterdam, told Reuters that the people and computers will become one tightly-coupled cognitive unit. On the other hand, former Vice President of Technology at Nest, Yoky Matsuoka thinks that AI will eventually make humans better.
In terms of future development must be taken into account an arising of so-called integrated artificial intelligence, which involves the integration of existing AI technologies, to create a very capable system in an interactive environment.
How far are we from inventing strong artificial intelligence? Many experts believe that the best possible AI achievements still decades away. Primarily because such developments require parallel development of control and security tools. From today’s perspective, it is impossible to predict all the consequences beyond speculation.